Curriculum Development and Change

 Essay about Curriculum Expansion and Change


There seems to become a lot of controversy and doubt as to ¡¥what is the programs? ¡¦ Consequently, there is a releasing lack of opinion on an all-embracing definition of this kind of comprehensive strategy. This is, in part, due to the numerous interpretations, meanings, emphasis and approaches which the scholars of curriculum research embark upon. This, in turn, leaves the education professionals and the public in the dark in regards to what constitutes that which should be considered while ¡¥good program practice¡¦ in educational institutions.

This exposition attempts to highlight and evaluate the essential concepts in the curriculum and a few of the factors that have noticeable influence about curriculum preparing, curriculum advancement and change. The impact that learning environments, learning theories, lifestyle, ideologies and knowledge include on the subjects will be in short , brought to the fore.


The term subjects is derived from a Latin term ¡¥curere¡¦ that means the ¡¥racecourse¡¦. Implicit inside the meaning is, as cited by Fraser, W. L. et al (1990: 81). The fact the fact that curriculum is ¡¥a comparatively fixed trail or terrain (learning content) which must be covered (mastered) by the participator (learner) in order to reach the winning-post (learning result). ¡¦

Based on this kind of literal which means, attempts to clarify what the curriculum is definitely have triggered the following meanings: „XA plan of study

„XCourse content material

„XPlanned learning encounters

„XIntended learning outcomes

„XA plan for teaching

According to Graham-Jolly, Meters. (2000: 3), these definitions are slim interpretations with the curriculum as

¡Kthe term is often accustomed to refer to the formal academic programme provided by a school, as reflected in subjects within the timetable,,, it might also be utilized to refer to a certain course of training or syllabus.

The focus here is, in the main, upon didactic activities as they take place within the class room situation.

The most recent trend, nevertheless , places focus on a larger and more specially interpretation in the concept, which takes into cognisance the social, politics, economic and historical situations within which the curriculum is made, developed and implemented.

Lubisi, C ou al (1998) distinguishes between the curriculum as a ¡¥product¡¦ or ¡¥plan¡¦ (narrow perspective) and curriculum since ¡¥practice¡¦ or perhaps ¡¥process¡¦ (broad perspective). The product view includes a plan to be followed by the teachers (blue print) in carrying out the didactic actions. The practice view involves all the actions that advise the situations in an educational institution.

In a nutshell, the narrow perspective will pay more attention on the intentions, plans or perhaps ideas regarding what happens in a school. On the contrary, the broad point of view focuses on the present state of affairs and recognises the actual happenings depending on social constructs.


Prolonged debates pertaining to the definition of the curriculum, among curriculists, have culminated in the emergence of divergent connotations and hence numerous forms of the curriculum specifically:

2 . 1 . 1 . Formal or ¡¥official¡¦ curriculum

A planned and documented type of the subjects.

2 . 1 . 2 . ¡¥Actual¡¦ curriculum

- That which takes place when the ¡¥official¡¦ curriculum is usually implemented.

2 . 1 . a few. ¡¥Hidden¡¦ program

The values, values and rules of behaviour that are disseminated implicitly through the process of socialisation; intentionally or perhaps unintentionally. The hidden program is random in characteristics and is a by-product of planned actions. Social and sex tasks are bought through this type of the curriculum.

2 . 1 . 5 ¡¥Common¡¦ programs

This form of the programs seeks to deal with the imbalances and inequities that been with us in racially-divided South African educational institution.

In the lumination of the great complexity of dimensions associated with the word program, I find...

References: „X Fraser, WJ. (1990). ¡¥Didactics¡¦, South Africa: Butterworths

„X Gatawa, B. H. M. (1990) ¡¥The Politics of the Curriculum¡¦, Zimbabwe: Jongwe Press.

„X Graham-Jolly, M. (200) ¡¥The Curriculum: Theory and Practice¡¦ Birmingham: Paul Chapman

„X King, M. (1991) ¡¥The Politics of Curriculum, Structure and Processes¡¦, Pietermaritzburg: Centaur Publishers

„X Lemmer, E. (1999) ¡¥Contemporary Education¡¦ Sandton: Heinemann

„X Lubisi, C. et al (1998). ¡¥Thinking about Curriculum¡¦ Cape Area: Oxford University or college Press.

„X Ozmon, H. A. and Craver, S. Meters. (1986). ¡¥Philosophical Foundations of Education¡¦. Ohio: Merrill

„X Taylor, P. and Richards, C. M. (1987). ¡¥Curriculum Studies¡¦ Berkshire: Nelson